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Estudio descubre un anticuerpo que reduce las reacciones alérgicas a múltiples alimentos



A 16-week course of a monoclonal antibody, omalizumab, increased the amount of peanut, tree nuts, egg, milk and wheat that multi-food allergic children as young as 1 year could consume without an allergic reaction in a late-stage clinical trial. Nearly 67% of participants who completed the antibody treatment could consume a single dose of 600 milligrams (mg) or more of peanut protein, equivalent to 2.5 peanuts, without a moderate or severe allergic reaction, in contrast with less than 7% of participants who received placebo. The treatment yielded similar outcomes for egg, milk, wheat, cashew, walnut and hazelnut at a threshold dose of 1,000 mg protein or more. This suggests the antibody therapy has the potential to protect children and adolescents if they accidentally eat a food to which they are allergic despite efforts to avoid it, according to the investigators. The findings were presented(link is external) today at the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C., and published in The New England Journal of Medicine.


“People with food allergies and their caregivers need to maintain constant vigilance to avoid foods that could cause a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. This is extremely stressful, especially for parents of young children,” said Jeanne Marrazzo, M.D., M.P.H., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health and the trial’s regulatory sponsor. “Although food avoidance remains critical, the findings reported today show that a medicine can help reduce the risk of allergic reactions to common foods and may provide protection from accidental exposure emergencies.”


NIAID funds the ongoing trial with additional support from and collaboration with Genentech, a member of the Roche Group, and Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. The two companies collaborate to develop and promote omalizumab, marketed as Xolair, and are supplying it for the trial. The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, also part of NIH, supports some of the staff, space and services used to conduct the trial.

An estimated 7.6% of children in the United State — roughly 5.5 million kids — have food allergies. On February 16, 2024, the Food and Drug Administration approved omalizumab for the reduction of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, that may occur with an accidental exposure to one or more foods in adults and children aged 1 year and older with food allergy. The FDA approval was based on data from a planned interim analysis of the Phase 3 NIAID trial. People taking omalizumab still need to avoid foods they are allergic to. Omalizumab is not approved for the emergency treatment of allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis.


Previously, the only available treatment for food allergy was oral immunotherapy, or OIT, which involves daily ingestion of a specific food allergen in gradually increasing doses up to a maintenance amount.



Source: NHS.gov

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